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Locators are meant to provide a precise location in a publication in a format that can be stored and shared.

There are many different use cases for locators:

Each locator must contain a reference to a resource in a publication (href and type). href must not point to the fragment of a resource.

It may also contain:

The locator Object

Key Definition Format Required
href The URI of the resource that the Locator Object points to. URI Yes
type The media type of the resource that the Locator Object points to. Media Type Yes
title The title of the chapter or section which is more relevant in the context of this locator. String No
locations One or more alternative expressions of the location. Location Object No
text Textual context of the locator. Text Object No

The location Object

Key Definition Format Required
fragments Contains one or more fragment in the resource referenced by the Locator Object. Array of strings No
progression Progression in the resource expressed as a percentage. Float between 0 and 1 No
position An index in the publication. Integer where the value is > 1 No
totalProgression Progression in the publication expressed as a percentage. Float between 0 and 1 No

Additional locations may also be included in this object, using an extension officially registered on this repository or a URI.

The following extensions are currently registered:

Name Description
HTML Extension Additional locations for HTML/XHTML documents.

The text Object

A Locator Text Object contains multiple text fragments, useful to give a context to the Locator or for highlights.

Key Definition Format Required
after The text after the locator. String No
before The text before the locator. String No
highlight The text at the locator. String No


Given the flexible nature of the Readium Web Publication Manifest, we need the ability to provide locations into all sorts of resources (text, audio, video, images).

Fragments are flexible enough to achieve that goal. They also provide a natural extension point for our locator model since any media-type can define its own fragment identifiers.

They’re by nature media-specific and should always be understood in the context of the resource that the locator points to (by looking at href and type).

For this purpose, this document identifies the following specifications along with their scope:

Specification Scope Examples
Media Fragment URI 1.0 Audio, Video and Images t=67, xywh=160,120,320,240
PDF PDF page=12, viewrect=50,50,640,480


Example 1: Pointing to the start of Pride and Prejudice

  "href": "",
  "type": "text/html",
  "title": "Chapter 1",
  "locations": {
    "position": 4,
    "progression": 0.03401,
    "totalProgression": 0.01349
  "text": {
    "after": "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife."

Example 2: Pointing somewhere in the middle of an audiobook

  "href": "",
  "type": "audio/ogg",
  "title": "Chapter 5",
  "locations": {
    "fragments": ["t=389.84"],
    "progression": 0.607379,
    "totalProgression": 0.50678

Example 3: Pointing to a rectangle in a page of a PDF

  "href": "",
  "type": "application/pdf",
  "title": "Page 5",
  "locations": {
    "fragments": ["page=5", "viewrect=50,50,640,480"],
    "progression": 0.12703,
    "totalProgression": 0.12703

Best Practices

In addition to defining the Locator model, the Readium community also strongly recommend all implementations to follow a number of best practices:

Appendix A - JSON Schema

A reference JSON Schema is available under version control at: